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Chicago Manual of Style Sample Citations


For examples not illustrated here, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. (1993), which is on Permanent Reserve at the Circulation & Reserves Desk.


This citation style uses superscript numbers in the text to indicate a reference. Complete information is then given as a footnote or an endnote. In addition, there is an alphabetically arranged bibliography of all sources used. In the examples that follow, 

N = Note B = Bibliography 

The first time a source appears in a note, complete information should be provided. In subsequent reference, the note may be shorted to the author's last name, a comma, and the page numbers cited. If your bibliography includes more than one book by the same author, the shortened form must also include the key word or words from the title, for example

 6. Hood, Dragons, 57.

All examples are from paper sources, unless they are specifically indicated as online sources. The general format of citations to online sources is the same as for paper, with the addition of the following:

The document's online location (the complete URL, database or information service where you located the document) and the date you accessed the source.

These criteria are still being developed by the Chicago Manual of Style. For the most recent guidelines, check their website . Click on "Chicago Manual of Style FAQ". There is only a little help, scattered among other topics.

The footnote or endnote number should be placed at the end of the relevant sentence, after the punctuation mark, as in this example.


Index to Chicago Manual of Style Sample Citations


BOOKS

PERIODICALS

OTHER

ELECTRONIC



Examples of FIRST REFERENCE

BOOKS, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, AND DISSERTATIONS

Book with one author

 N 6. C. Dallett Hemphill, Bowing to Necessities: A History of Manners in America, 1620-
1860
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 114.
 B Hemphill, C. Dallett. Bowing to Necessities: A History of Manners in America,
 1620-1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

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Multiple works by the same author

 N 6. Steven Hood, The Kuomintang And The Democratization of Taiwan (Boulder:
Westview Press, 1997), 92.
 N 9. Steven Hood, Dragons Entangled: Indochina and the China-Vietnam War.
(Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1992), 152-153.
 B Hood, Steven. Dragons Entangled: Indochina and the China-Vietnam War.
 Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1992.
 B ---. The Kuomintang And The Democratization of Taiwan. Boulder: Westview Press,
 1997.

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Two or three authors

 N 6. Michael Aiken, Lewis A. Ferman, and Harold L. Sheppard, Economic Failure,
Alienation, and Extremism
(Ann Arbor: Univeristy of Michigan Press, 1968), 331-342.
 B Aiken, Michael, Lewis A. Ferman, and Harold L. Sheppard. Economic Failure,
 Alienation, and Extremism. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1968.

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More than three authors

 N 6. Bernard Bailyn et al., The Great Republic: History of the American People
(Lexington, Mass.: Heath, 1977), 107.
 B Bailyn, Bernard, et al. The Great Republic: History of the American People.
 Lexington, Mass.: Heath, 1977.

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Corporate authorship (can sometimes also be the publisher)

 N 6. World Bank, Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights,
Resources, and Voice
(New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 241.
 B World Bank. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources,
 and Voice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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Book with no author listed; Edition after the first

 N 6. The World of Learning, 47th ed. (London: Europa, 1997), 734.
 B The World of Learning. 47th ed. London: Europa, 1997.

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Book with a translator or editor

 N 6. Albert Camus, The Plague, trans. Stuart Gilbert (New York: Knopf, 1948), 62-63.
 B Camus, Albert. The Plague. Translated by Stuart Gilbert. New York: Knopf, 1948.

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Reprint - give the dates of the original and the reprint

 N 6. Edward S. Corwin, Liberty Against Government; The Rise, Flowering and Decline
of a Famous Juridical Concept
(1948; reprint, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 
1978), 14.
 B Corwin, Edward S. Liberty Against Government; The Rise, Flowering and Decline of
 a Famous Juridical Concept. 1948. Reprint, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood
 Press, 1978.

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Pamphlets, corporate reports, and other free-standing publications are treated as books, insofar as possible.

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Untitled volume in a multivolume work

 N 6. John M. Wickersham, ed., Myths and Legends of the World (New York: Macmillan
Reference, 2000), 3:81-83
 B Wickersham, John M., ed., Myths and Legends of the World. New York: Macmillan
 Reference, 2000.

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Titled volume in a multivolume work

 N 6. Gwinn Harris Heap, Central Route to the Pacific, vol. 7 of The Far West and the
Rockies Historical Series, 1820-1875
(Glendale, Cal.: Arthur H. Clark, 1957), 237-239.
 B Heap, Gwinn Harris. Central Route to the Pacific. Vol. 5 of The Far West and the
 Rockies Historical Series, 1820-1875. Glendale, Cal.: Arthur H. Clark, 1957.

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Chapter in a book or article in an anthology

 N 6. Hugh R. Clark. "Overseas Trade and Social Change in Quanzhou through the
Song," in Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000 1400, ed. Angela
Schottenhammer (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2001), 52-53.
 B Clark, Hugh R. "Overseas Trade and Social Change in Quanzhou through the Song,"
 in Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000 1400, edited by
 Angela Schottenhammer, 47-94. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2001.

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Book in a series

 N 6. Robin Clouser, Love and Social Contracts: Goethe's Unterhaltungen Deutscher
Ausgewanderten
, Germanic Studies in America 62 (Bern: Lang, 1991), 134.
 B Clouser, Robin. Love and Social Contracts: Goethe's Unterhaltungen Deutscher
 Ausgewanderten
. Germanic Studies in America 62. Bern: Lang, 1991.

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Early American Imprints, ERIC, or other full text information service

 N W. D., The Plain Dealer, No. III, (Philadelphia: n.p., 1764), 8. Early American
Imprints no. 9879.
 B D. W. The Plain Dealer, No. III. Philadelphia: n.p., 1764. Early American Imprints
 no. 9878.

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An introduction, foreword, preface, or afterword

 N 6. Jeana Yeager, foreword to Amelia Earhart: A Biography, by Doris L. Rich.
(Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1989), ix.
 B Yeager, Jeana. Foreword to Amelia Earhart: A Biography, by Doris L. Rich.
 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1989.

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Indirect source - if it is not possible to read the original

 N 6. J. Frank Dobie, Guide to Life and Literature of the Southwest (Austin: University of
Texas Press, 1943), 50-51, quoted in David Dary, The Santa Fe Trail; Its History, Legends,
and Lore
(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 311.
 B Dobie, J. Frank. Guide to Life and Literature of the Southwest, 50-51. Austin:
 University of Texas Press, 1943. Quoted in David Dary, The Santa Fe Trail; Its
 History, Legends, and Lore (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 311.

 Return to the index


Books with no place of publication, no publisher, unnumbered pages, or no date. Include 
any information that is available.

 N Burke McCarty, The Suppressed Truth About the Assassination of Lincoln (N.p: n.p.,
n.d.), n.p.
 B McCarty, Burke. The Suppressed Truth About the Assassination of Lincoln.
 N.p.: n.p., n.d.

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World Wide Web - Include as much information as possible, so that someone else may find 
exactly what you did. Include as many of the following elements as you can.

Author, "Title of Article or Web Page Section," Title of Project or Database, date of the 
publication or last revision - if not known, used n.d., URL, and (date of access). 

 N 6. Barbara W. Fash and William L. Fash, "Saving the Maya Past for the Future:
Copan's New Sculpture Museum," Peabody Museum of Archaeology, 1996,
www.peabody.harvard.edu/profiles/default.html (17 September 1999).
 B Fash, Barbara W., and William L. Fash. "Saving the Maya Past for the Future:
 Copan's New Sculpture Museum." Peabody Museum of Archaeology,
 1996, www.peabody.harvard.edu/profiles/default.html (17 September 1999).

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Dictionary or Encyclopedia

 N 6. Encyclopedia of World Biography, s.v. "Jefferson, Thomas."
 N 11. Webster's New International Dictionary, 3d ed., s.v. "prolocutor"
 B Well-known reference books are not usually listed in bibliographies.

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PERIODICALS

Journal article paginated by volume

 N 6. Stewart Goetz, "The Choice-Intention Principle." American Philosophical
Quarterly
32 (1995): 178.
 B Goetz, Stewart. "The Choice-Intention Principle." American Philosophical
 Quarterly 32 (1995): 177-85.

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Multiple articles by the same author

 N 6. Gerard Fitzpatrick, "Censorship of the Internet: The First Amendment Lost in
Cyberspace." Commonwealth 10 (1999): 41-43.
 N 14. Gerard Fitzpatrick, "Studying Supreme Court Justices." Polity 32 (1999): 279.
 B Fitzpatrick, Gerard. "Censorship of the Internet: The First Amendment Lost in
 Cyberspace." Commonwealth 10 (1999): 29-55.
 B ---. "Studying Supreme Court Justices." Polity 32 (1999): 271-284.

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Journal article paginated by issue

 N 6. Daniel Sanjiv Roberts, "The Missing Letters of Thomas DeQuincey to Samuel
Taylor Coleridge." English Language Notes 36, no. 2 (1998): 21.
 B Roberts, Daniel Sanjiv. "The Missing Letters of Thomas DeQuincey to Samuel
 Taylor Coleridge." English Language Notes 36, no. 2 (1998): 21-27.

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Online article from a full text subscription service. Pages in InfoTrac are not numbered, so 
only the first page can be given, with a plus sign to indicate a multi-page article. In JSTOR 
and Project Muse, the same pages are shown as in the print version, so you can give the exact 
page number.

 N 6. Paul Stern, "Tyranny and self-knowledge: Critias and Socrates in Plato's'Charmides,'"
American Political Science Review 93 (1999):399+. (InfoTrac).
 B Stern, Paul. "Tyranny and self-knowledge: Critias and Socrates in Plato's'Charmides'".
 American Political Science Review 93 (1999): 399+. (InfoTrac).

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Article in a weekly or monthly magazine; two authors

 N 6. Hubert Saal and Fred Coleman, "America First," Newsweek, 17 July 1978, 99.
 B Saal, Hubert, and Fred Coleman. "America First." Newsweek, 17 July 1978, 99.

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Book or film review

 N 6. Richard King, review of Imperial Borderland: Bobrikov and the Attempted
Russification of Finland, 1898-1904
, by Tuomo Polvinen, trans. Steven Huxley. The Historian
61 (1999): 961.
 B King, Richard. Review of Imperial Borderland: Bobrikov and the Attempted
 Russification of Finland, 1898-1904, by Tuomo Polvinen. Translated by. Steven
 Huxley. The Historian 61 (1999): 960-61.

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Signed article from a daily newspaper. If the paper comes out in more than one edition, 
identify the edition between the date and pages, set off by commas. In this bibliography 
example, the article began on page 1 and continued on pages 6 and 7.

 N 6. Jon Volkmer, "The St. Croix Paradox," Philadelphia Inquirer, 31 October 1999,
L6.
 B Volkmer, Jon. "The St. Croix Paradox." Philadelphia Inquirer 31 October 1999,
 L1, 6-7.

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Newspaper article from full text service - It has been reformatted for the service and can be 
considered a separate edition, so include the name of the service. It usually does not include 
graphics, etc.

 N Patrick E. Tyler, "Russians Find Pride, and Regret, in Mir's Splashdown," The New
York Times
, 24 March 2001, A3. (Lexis-Nexis Universe).
 B Tyler, Patrick E. "Russians Find Pride, and Regret, in Mir's Splashdown." The New
 York Times 24 March 2001, A3. (Lexis-Nexis Universe).

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Letter to the editor - Treat as a newspaper article; if there is no title, use "Letter to the 
Editor".

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Compiled by Judith Fryer, Myrin Library 10/2002