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APA Sample Citations

The following are examples of citations and reference list entries using the APA (American Psychological Association) format. For examples not illustrated here, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1994), which is on Permanent Reserve at Circulation & Reserves.

All examples are from paper sources, unless they are specifically indicated as online sources. The general format of citations to online sources is the same as for paper, with the addition of the following:

A retrieval statement that includes date of retrieval (not necessary for CD-ROMs) and source, followed in parentheses by the name of the specific database and any other information needed to retrieve the particular item. For Web sources, give the URL of an "entry page" for the database.
These criteria are still being developed by APA. For the most recent guidelines, check Electronic Reference Formats Recommended by the American Psychological Association.

Compiled by Judith E. Fryer
Fall 1999


SAMPLE CITATIONS (C = Citation form; R = Reference List)

*** If the author's name is clearly mentioned in the text near the parenthetical citation, the name should be omitted within the parentheses, and only the date used.

*** If both the author and the year appear in the text, no parenthetical information is needed.

*** Within a paragraph, you need not include the year in subsequent references to the work, as long as it cannot be confused with other works cited.


Index to APA Sample Citations



PERIODICAL ARTICLES

ONE AUTHOR, PRINT SOURCE

 C (Gallagher, 1992)
 R Gallagher, T. E. (1992). Vargas Llosa, The Storyteller, and the premature demise
 of ethnography. MACLAS Latin American Essays, 7, 121-133.

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ONE AUTHOR, FULL TEXT ONLINE SOURCE (periodical)

 C (Ozawa, 1999)
 R Ozawa, T. (1999). The rise and fall of bank-loan capitalism: institutionally driven
 growth and crisis in Japan. Journal of Economic Issues, 32, 351+. Retrieved
 October 6, 1999 from Expanded Academic ASAP (InfoTrac) on the World
 WideWeb: http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/

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TWO AUTHORS, QUOTATION (periodical)

 C (Economopoulos & O'Neill, 1995, p. 1074)
 R Economopoulos, A., & O'Neill, H. (1995). Bank entry during the antebellum period.
 Journal of Money, Credit & Banking, 27, 1071

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MORE THAN TWO AUTHORS (periodical)

For three to five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; subsequent citations include the first author followed by et al. (not underlined and no period after et) and the year. List all in the Reference List. For six or more authors, cite only the first author followed by et al., but include all authors in the Reference List.

 C (Chambliss, Pinto, & McGuigan, 1997) first time
 C (Chambliss et al., 1997), subsequent times
 R Chambliss, C., Pinto, D., & McGuigan, J. (1997). Reactions to managed care among
 psychologists and social workers. Psychological Reports, 80, 147-154.

 

 C (Kneip et al., 1993) each time, including the first
 R Kneip, R. C., Delamater, A. M., Ismond, T., Milford, C., Salvia, L., & Schwartz, D.
 (1993). Self- and spouse ratings of anger and hostility as predictors of coronary
 heart disease. Health Psychology, 12, 301-307.

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ENTIRE SPECIAL ISSUE (periodical)

 C ("Testing," 1981)
 R Glaser, R., & Bond, L. (Eds.). (1981). Testing: Concepts, policy, practice, and
 research [Special issue]. American Psychologist, 36(10).

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MORE THAN ONE ARTICLE BY SAME AUTHOR, SAME PUBLICATION YEAR
(periodical)

 C (Parish, 1990a)
 C (Parish, 1990b)
 R Parish, T. S. (1990a). Evaluations of family by youth: Do they vary as a function of
 family structure, gender, and birth order? Adolescence, 25, 353-356.
 R Parish, T. S. (1990b). Examining teachers' perceptions of children's support systems.
 Journal of Psychology, 124, 113-118.

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AUTHORS WITH SAME SURNAME (periodical)

 C (S. Hood, 1998)
 C (G. Hood, 1993)
 R Hood, S. J. (1998). The myth of Asian-style democracy. Asian Survey, 38, 853-866.
 R Hood, G. (1993). Neither bang nor whimper. China Quarterly, 136, 1028-1029.

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MONTHLY MAGAZINE (periodical)

 C (Gardner, 1981)
 R Gardner, H. (1981, December). Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today, 15,
 70-76.

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DAILY NEWSPAPER ARTICLE, NONCONSECUTIVE PAGES (periodical)

 C (Landler, 1995)
 R Landler, M. (1995, May 9). Jingling the keys to cyberspace, cable officials sing a new
 tune. The New York Times, pp. D1, D6.

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NEWSPAPER ARTICLE, ELECTRONIC SOURCE (periodical)

 C (Brown, 1994)
 R Brown, M. W. (1994, July 26). Comet that shook Jupiter may probe planet's secrets.
 New York Times, Late Edition, Final, Sec. C: Science Desk, p. 1. Retrieved from
 ProQuest database, (New York Times Ondisc, CD-ROM)

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MONTHLY NEWSPAPER ARTICLE, NO AUTHOR (periodical)

 C ("Study finds," 1982)
 R Study finds free care used more. (1982, April). APA Monitor, p. 14.

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR (periodical)

 C (Aldridge, 1983)
 R Aldridge. D. W. III (1983, July 29). Kenneth B. Clark and the N.A.A.C.P. [Letter to
 the editor]. The New York Times, p. A22.

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REVIEW OF A BOOK, FILM, OR VIDEO (periodical)

 C (Czubaroff, 1991)
 R Czubaroff, J. (1991). [Review of the book A rhetoric of science: inventing scientific
 discourse]. Journal of Communication, 41, 163-165.

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PUBLISHED INTERVIEW, UNTITLED (periodical)

 C (Newman, 1982)
 R Newman, P. (1982, January). [Interview with William Epstein, editor of JEP: Human
 perception and performance]. APA Monitor, pp. 7, 39.

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ANNUAL PUBLICATION (periodical)

 C (Bruck & Ceci, 1999)
 R Bruck, M., & Ceci, S. J. (1999). The suggestibility of children's memory. Annual
 Review of Psychology, 50, 419-439.

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ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF AN ARTICLE, JOURNAL PAGINATED BY ISSUE
(periodical)

 C (Stutte, 1972)
 R Transcultural child psychiatry. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 38(9),
 229-231.

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JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT (periodical)

 C (Regier, A. A., Narrow, W. E., & Rae, D. S., 1990) first time
 C (Regier et al., 1990) subsequent mention
 R Regier, A. A., Narrow, W. E., & Rae, D. S. (1990). The epidemiology of anxiety
 disorders: The epidemiologic catchment area (ECA) experience. Journal of
 Psychiatric Research, 24(Suppl. 2), 3-14.

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WORKS DISCUSSED IN A SECONDARY SOURCE (periodical)

 C Johnson's study (as cited in Beatty, 1982)
 R Beatty, J. (1982). Task-evoked pupillary response, processing load, and the structure
 of processing resources. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 276-292.

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ABSTRACT OF ARTICLE, ELECTRONIC SOURCE (periodical)

 C (England & Petro, 1998)
 R England, E. M. & Petro, K. D. (1998). Middle school students' perceptions of peer
 groups: relative judgments about group characteristics. Journal of Early
 Adolescence, 18, 349-373. Abstract retrieved October 5, 1999 from PsychINFO
 database on the World Wide Web: http://webspirs.silverplatter.com

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BOOKS


ONE AUTHOR, CITING ENTIRE BOOK

 C (Gross, 1997)
 R Gross, P. A. (1997). Joint curriculum design: facilitating learner ownership and active
 participation in secondary classrooms. Mahwah: Erlbaum.

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SPECIFIC PARTS OF A WORK OR QUOTATION (book)

 C (Gross, 1997, p. 42)
 C (Gross, 1997, chap. 3)

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TWO AUTHORS (book)

 C (Klebanow & Lowenkopf, 1991)
 R Klebanow, S., & Lowenkopf, E. (1991). Money and mind. New York: Plenum.

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MORE THAN TWO AUTHORS (book)

For three to five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; subsequent citations include the first author followed by et al. (not underlined and no period after et) and the year. List all in the Reference List. For six or more authors, cite only the first author followed by et al., but include all authors in the Reference List.

 C (Atkinson, Bower, & Crothers, 1965) first time
 C (Atkinson et al., 1965) subsequent times
 R Atkinson, R. C., Bower, G. H., & Crothers, E. J. (1965). An introduction to
 mathematical learning theory. New York: Wiley.

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CORPORATE AUTHOR, TECHNICAL AND RESEARCH REPORTS

If the name of the corporate author is long and if the abbreviation is familiar or easily understandable, you may use the abbreviation in subsequent citations.

 C (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1990) first time
 C (NIMH, 1990) subsequent times
 R National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness
 (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government
 Printing Office.

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EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST (book)

 C (Roskin & Berry, 1997)
 R Roskin, M. G. & Berry, N. O. (1997). IR: the new world of international relations
 (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

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EDITOR(S) (book)

 C (Hall, 1989)
 R Hall, C. (Ed.). (1989). Toward a more inclusive curriculum: the integration of gender,
 race, and class. Gaithersburg: Ephemera/Belles Lettres.

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NO AUTHOR OR EDITOR (book)

 C (Mental health, 1986)
 R Mental health needs of homeless persons (1986). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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ARTICLE IN AN ENCYCLOPEDIA

 C (Oboler, 1995)
 R Oboler, R. E. (1995). Nandi and other Kalenjin peoples. In Encyclopedia of World
 Cultures (Vol. 9, pp. 231-234). Boston: Hall.

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DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS
AUTHOR AS PUBLISHER

 C (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
disorders
) first time
 C (DSM-IV) subsequent mention
 R American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
 disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

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ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK

 C (Borsdorf, 1989)
 R Borsdorf, L. (1989). Revising the canon through an adapted physical education course.
 In C. Hall (Ed.), Toward a more inclusive curriculum: the integration of gender,
 race, and class (pp. 57-63). Gaithersburg: Ephemera/Belles Lettres.

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DOCUMENT IN COLLECTION OF FULL-TEXT SOURCES
(such as NTDB, NESE, or OSHA
)

 C (Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA], 1994) first time
 C (OSHA, 1994) subsequent mention
 R Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (1994, May). Chemical sampling
 information. Washington: OSHA. Retrieved from OSHA regulations, documents,
 and technical information. (OSHA CD-ROM, A94-3)

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MULTIVOLUME EDITED WORK, PUBLISHED OVER SEVERAL YEARS

 C (Wilson & Fraser, 1977-78)
 R Wilson, J. G., & Fraser, F. C. (Eds.). Handbook of teratology (Vols. 1-4). New
 York: Plenum Press.

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ABSTRACT OF A MONOGRAPH, FROM A DATABASE

 C (Caruso & Chambliss, 1994)
 R Caruso, K. A. & Chambliss, C. A. (1994). Japanese and American college students'
 perceptions of familial and peer relationships. Abstract retrieved from ERIC
 database (WinSPIRS ERIC CD-ROM, version 4.0)

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ENGLISH TRANSLATION (book)

 C (Laplace, 1814/1951)
 R Laplace, P. -S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L
 Emory, Trans.). New York: Dover. (Original work published 1814)

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UNPUBLISHED PAPER PRESENTED AT A MEETING

 C (Fryer, 1989)
 R Fryer, J. E. (1989, April). Mayan epigraphy and iconography; interpreting a culture.
 Paper presented at the Middle Atlantic Council of Latin American Studies,
 Collegeville, PA.

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POSTER SESSION

 C (Malone, D., 1995)
 R Malone, D. (1995, March). Building bridges: Collaborative collection development in
 a changing world. Poster session presented at the national conference of the
 Association of College and Research Libraries, Pittsburgh, PA.

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PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
(letters, memos, conversations, e-mail, electronic discussion groups or bulletin boards)

 C P. Erb (personal communication, August 27, 1993)

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WORLD WIDE WEB

 C (Fash & Fash)
 R Fash, B. W., & Fash, W. L. Saving the Maya past for the future: Copan's new
 sculpture museum. Peabody Museum of Archaeology. Retrieved on September
 17, 1999: http://www.peabody.harvard.edu/profiles/default.html

The format is

Author. (Publication date, if given). Title. Title of project or homepage. Retrieval statement: complete URL

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